Transmission and genetic characterization

One of the main activities of the AMR research group is studies on molecular epidemiology. Traditional typing methods established include PGFE, MLVA, MLST, and PCR and sequencing. These methods have been applied in several studies on both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria displaying AMR. In recent years, whole genome sequencing (WGS) has gradually started to replace traditional typing methods, and is now extensively used in AMR research projects. Several studies have focused on mobile genetic elements carrying genes encoding AMR, such as plasmids and integrons. The DNA sequence of AMR plasmids have been determined and annotated. Further, transfer experiments in different matrixes, at different temperatures, and using different recipient bacteria have been used to study the transferability of AMR plasmids. Studies combining WGS and epidemiological data have been used to study whole bacterium transmission between different hosts (animals, humans and environment), with a special focus on MRSA transmission in livestock production. WGS is also used to characterize quinolone- or cephalosporin resistant E. coli originating from different animals and foodstuffs.

Figure og plasmid
Structure of the blaCMY-2 containing plasmid pNVI1292 isolated from 1292DH5α. Light blue colour indicate transfer associated genes, blue colour indicate pilus associated genes, light green colour indicate resistance genes, red colour indicate plasmid stability systems, purple colour indicate insertion sequence, dark green colour indicate replication associated genes, orange colour indicate other proteins, and grey colour indicate hypothetical proteins.

Reference figure 1: Plasmid and Host Strain Characteristics of Escherichia coli Resistant to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins in the Norwegian Broiler Production. PLoS One. 2016;11(4):e0154019.